What is Brain Surgery  : Types & Risks

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Brain surgery is a way to treat various brain ailments such as clots, tumors, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and many more. Brain surgery is performed by an experienced neurosurgeon and an experienced anaesthesiologist who has extensive knowledge about anaesthesia. To perform brain surgery involves constant monitoring and post-operative care as these are very sensitive surgeries and may be fatal or lead to permanent disability if not taken proper care.

What is brain surgery?

Brain Surgery is a complex medical procedure that involves structural repairing of the problems in the brain. 

Brain surgery are of various types, the type of surgery that is performed is based on the condition and the area of the brain. Nowadays due to the advancement of medical technology surgeons can operate on a particular portion of the brain without any incision in or around the patient’s head.

Brain surgery is a critical and complex process, the surgery type completely depends on the condition of the brain. In a few cases a device is inserted inside the brain through the groin to cure any rupture or any blood clot. If the situation is advanced, open brain surgery is performed with intense care and precision.

Why is brain surgery done?

Brain surgery is mostly done to rectify the physical abnormalities in the brain. These physical abnormalities can be due to some major injury, diseases, physical defects by birth or it can be due to some other problems.

Below mentioned are some conditions in or around the brain for which Brain surgery is required:

  • Abnormal Blood Vessels
  • An Aneurysm
  • In case of Bleeding
  • In case of Blood Clots
  • In case the protective tissue called “Dura” gets damaged
  • In case of Epilepsy
  • In case of Abscesses
  • In case of Nerve damage or nerve irritation
  • In case of Parkinson’s disease
  • Pressure after head injury
  • In case of Skull fracture
  • In case of a stroke
  • In case of a Brain Tumors
  • In case of Fluid building up in the brain

Brain Surgery is not the only option in the above-mentioned conditions but brain surgery might be helpful in conditions where there is threat of more serious health ailment. For example, a brain aneurysm is a surgery where the brain need not be completely opened, but you may need open surgery if the vessel ruptures. For consultation you can contact the best neurosurgeon in Kerala in case you are visiting Kerala.

Brain Surgery Types

There are different types of Brain Surgery. The type of surgery that is implemented depends on the problem being treated.

Craniotomy

In this kind of surgery, a hole is made inside the skull near the affected area, this hole is known as the brain flap. This kind of surgery is also known as open brain surgery and is done to treat the following problems.

  • Remove Tumors
  • Clip off an aneurysm
  • Blood or fluid draining from infection
  • Remove abnormal brain tissue

Once the surgery is over the hole or the bone flap is replaced with plates, wires or sutures. The bone flap is generally kept open to treat any swelling or tumor that may arise in the brain. The procedure of keeping the bone flap open is known as a craniectomy.

Biopsy

In this procedure a small amount of brain tissue or a tumor is removed so it can be further examined under a microscope. This procedure (Biopsy) involves a small incision and hole in the skull.

Deep Brain Stimulation:

This kind of surgery is done in the case of Parkinson’s disease where a battery-operated medical device is implanted inside the brain to generate stimulation. This medical device is implanted at some specific areas of the brain where the pulse generator can send stimulation.

Neuroendoscopy:

 This is a process in which a thin threadlike tube is inserted inside the brain to remove brain tissue. This tube has a light and camera on the end, and the surgery is performed by monitoring on the screen. 

Posterior fossa decompression:

This kind of operation is to remove a small portion of bone from the bottom of the skull so that the pressure is relieved from the spinal cord. This surgery takes place at the cerebellum and the brainstem.

Thrombectomy and cerebral aneurysm repair: 

This type of brain surgery is performed when there is a clot in the brain artery or rupture in the brain that causes bleeding. The surgical instrument is inserted from the groin and reaches the brain vessels using contrast dye. This contrast identifies the place where there is clot to remove the same.

Brain surgery risks:

A lot of risks are involved with brain surgery , some are problems of speech, memory loss, muscle weakness, issues in vision, coordination problems. Other risks are 

  • Blood clot
  • Seizures
  • Stroke
  • Coma
  • Brain swelling
  • Infection in and around the brain

The chances of these risks can be reduced when treated by an experienced neurosurgeon. So, if you are from Kerala and require a brain surgery, ensure you consult the best neurosurgeon in Kochi who is renowned and experienced in brain surgery.